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Theory of Intelligence
Students who believe that intelligence can increase with effort perform better academically.
Some students strive to excel while others focus on avoiding failure. These orientations strongly affect outcomes.
Expectations about performance that reflect stereotypes can lead to anxiety, reduced mental capacity, and diminished performance.
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
Students who are intrinsically motivated to learn tend to work harder and achieve at higher levels in the long term.